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The blue hue of skin overlying injected hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in certain cases has been hypothesized in the literature as related to the Tyndall effect. This investigation aims to understand the relevant optical concepts and to discuss the plausibility of this assertion.

METHODS::

Theoretic and physical aspects of relevant optical theories including the Tyndall effect, the Raleigh criterion and the Mie Solution are discussed, with simple examples. The physical properties of the system (both HA and subcutaneous tissue) are explored. Alternate concepts of dermal hue generation are discussed.

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酒糟看似簡單,其實病理機轉一點都單純,它牽涉到多項免疫發炎反應、血管變化及神經傳導反應。不同的機轉分別影響酒糟病患發展出不同的臨床型態,譬如紅斑血管擴張(erythematotelangiectatic,ETR)丘疹膿皰型(papulopustular,PPR)、鼻瘤型(phyamtaous)、眼睛症狀型(ocular)四種亞型,事實上,病人可能在不同的階段轉成另外一型表現為主,也可能同時擁有兩個以上亞型。目前的理論多著重於皮膚血管作用的異常,包括:

發炎細胞的分子變化

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Merck's Propecia is used to treat hair loss, but the drug can also cause a number of side effects, including permanent sexual dysfunction.

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J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2010 Sep-Oct;50(5):e106-15. doi: 10.1331/JAPhA.2010.09243.

Evaluating the evidence for over-the-counter alternatives for relief of hot flashes in menopausal women.

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The blue hue of skin overlying injected hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in certain cases has been hypothesized in the literature as related to the Tyndall effect. This investigation aims to understand the relevant optical concepts and to discuss the plausibility of this assertion.

METHODS::

Theoretic and physical aspects of relevant optical theories including the Tyndall effect, the Raleigh criterion and the Mie Solution are discussed, with simple examples. The physical properties of the system (both HA and subcutaneous tissue) are explored. Alternate concepts of dermal hue generation are discussed.

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Nat Prod Commun. 2013 Mar;8(3):415-8.

Therapeutic effects of glycyrrhizic acid.

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linear hyperpigmentation  

https://www.inkling.com/read/dermatology-bolognia-jorizzo-schaffer-3rd/chapter-67/linear-hyperpigmentation

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The FDA Warning on Ketoconazole

On July 26, 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a Drug Safety Communication titled "FDA limits usage of Nizoral (ketoconazole) oral tablets due to potentially fatal liver injury and risk of drug interactions and adrenal gland problems."[1] The drug is known to be a very potent inhibitor of hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4 when used at the approved dose; indeed, it is the standard against which other such inhibitors are compared in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies.[2] Serious adverse effects that occurred when used in the approved dose led to France's withdrawal of the drug for use in deep fungal infections . That led to a mandatory review by other European Union (EU) and UK regulators and a similar withdrawal; the FDA essentially followed suit.

Ketoconazole Dosage in Malassezia Infection

Dermatologists have been aware of the risks posed by the full approved dosage of ketoconazole for decades and are likewise aware of less toxic options for managing dermatophyte (athlete's foot fungus) and Candida (vulvovaginal yeast) infections of the skin and nails.

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HA related ischemia using NTG  

 

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Eflornithine hydrochloride (sold under the brand name > Vaniqa) is a prescription cream applied to the skin for the reduction of unwanted facial hair in women ages 12 and older. For unknown reasons, Vaniqa does not work for everyone.

Background

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The required time for hair removal by chemical depilatories has always been a concern and depends on different parameters including permeation into the hair shaft.

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Eflornithine hydrochloride (sold under the brand name > Vaniqa) is a prescription cream applied to the skin for the reduction of unwanted facial hair in women ages 12 and older. For unknown reasons, Vaniqa does not work for everyone.

Background

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MAOIs 阻斷單胺氧化酶(Monoamine oxidase):

包含:苯乙肼phenelzine (Nardil)、 isocarboxazid (Marplan)和tranylcypromine (Parnate)。因為這類藥物有嚴重的副作用,通常只有其他抗憂鬱劑無效時才會使用。新的MAOIs如:selegiline (Eldepryl, Movergan,deprenyl)和moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix),只作用在一種MAOI酵素,比舊的MAOIs較少嚴重的副作用。

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何時要order SEP

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Monocytosis

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Heavy chain disease is characterized by increased amounts of a specific heavy chain -with no light chains.
1. Gamma HCD is associated with autoimmune diseases including AIHA, Sjogrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, thyroiditis, etc.

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